1) Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia (2nd

1) Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia (2nd Ed) – J. E. Peterson
Scarecrow Press | 2003 | PDF

This revised edition of the Historical Dictionary of Saudia Arabia provides essential data and guidance on the modern development of the country, as well as on its origins, traditions, and history.

2) Historical Dictionary of Iraq – Edmund A. Ghareeb, Beth Dougherty
Scarecrow Press | 2004 | PDF

Iraq, the land of Hamurabi and Harun al-Rashid, has played a long and unique role in the history of human civilization. The oldest civilization known to man evolved on the shores of its twin rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. The great cities of antiquity-Uruk, Ur, Akkad, Babylon, Basra, Mawsil, and Baghdad-were major centers of high culture and political power for much of the course of human history.

This reference begins with the earliest civilizations and covers the many periods that followed, ranging from the history of ancient Mesopotamia to the Abbasid Empire to present-day Iraq. Included are a historical overview; a country profile; a review of the economy, oil, fauna, and political institution; coverage of the Iran-Iraq War; and coverage of the Kuwait invasion and the second Gulf War and other conflicts. The major ethnic groups such as the Kurds, the Turkumans and the Assyrians, Islam and Muslim sects, Christianity and Christian sects, as well as other religious groups are profiled. Dictionary entries also highlight the main political, religious, and ideological parties, groups, and organizations; major historical personalities; languages; literature; and cultural elements. A broad range of topics, both ancient and modern, are dealt with throughout the introduction and the dictionary, and a comprehensive bibliography complements this extensive historical reference.

3) Historical Dictionary of Syria – David Dean Commins
Scarecrow Press | 1996 | EPUB

A Syrian historical dictionary providing brief definitions of important personalities, places, events, and linguistic and religious groups from the Arab conquest in the 7th century to the present. Commins (history, Dickinson College) introduces the country with a general overview of its geography,

4) Historical Dictionary of Lebanon – As’ad AbuKhalil
Scarecrow Press | 1998 | EPUB

The Lebanese civil war has made the study of Lebanon a difficult endeavor. The complexity of Lebanese society is the result of a unique political system and a richly diverse populace. This volume will help those who wish to delve beyond the superficial journalistic accounts of Lebanese society and culture. Entries encompass information about various subject areas, including political leaders, poets, artists, actors, writers, musicians, singers, important events and places, political parties, militia groups, foreign interests, and military elements. It is important to note that this dictionary does not exclude women, as is often the case with historical works on Lebanon. It escapes the narrow confines of a male-gendered history of Lebanon.

Many of the personalities presented in this text are not presently known to English readers, and the volume easily bridges the widening gap between Arabic and English approaches to the study of Lebanese history. It also offers crucial information about rarely discussed issues such as AIDS, homosexuality, and prostitution, and delineates the ethnicities that exist in the country, making clear the balances of power that propelled Lebanon into civil war and dragged it back toward peace again. The volume includes an extensive bibliographic section with sources in Arabic, English, French, and German. An essential volume on a country that has occupied center-stage in the last decade of Middle Eastern politics.

5) Historical Dictionary of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan – Peter Gubser
Scarecrow Press | 1991 | EPUB

Jordan has been at the crossroads of Middle East events since Biblical times. In contemporary times, the recent Persian Gulf crisis and the long-simmering Arab-Israeli conflict have thrust Jordan into a troublesome but crucial role. But despite its unstable setting, it has experienced remarkably stable leadership_since 1953, King Hussein has steered the country through the difficulties of internal strife, Middle East wars, and international pressure. This new historical dictionary provides in a convenient format a broad array of data and descriptive material on this crucial state. With the most comprehensive bibliography available on Jordan.